The conoid tubercle, which is found more laterally towards the acromial end. Pain at the insertion site correlates with dysfunction of the upper and median cervical spine. 2008 Jan;38(1):4-11. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2008.2616. The scapulothoracic joint is not a true anatomical joint but is rather considered as a unit that gathers the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular (AC) joints and the junction between the anterior surface of the scapula and the thoracic cage (scapulothoracic junction). The costal surface is concave to fit on the convex chest wall. Like their connected bones, the scapulae are paired, with each scapula on either side of the body being roughly a mirror image of the other. The relationship between physical impairments, quality of life and disability of the neck and upper limb in patients following neck dissection. ABOUT US. Several methods for the assessment of scapular positioning are described in scientific literature. 3D Laser Scanning. Scapular positioning and movement in unimpaired shoulders, shoulder impingement syndrome, and glenohumeral instability. 3. The subcoracoid centre appears in the root of the coracoid process during the 10th year and fuses by the 16th to 18th years (Fig. Scapular involvement in impingement: signs and symptoms. In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas ), also known as the shoulder bone, shoulder blade, wing bone or blade bone, is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone). 2014 Jul;44(7):475-87. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2014.4760. The composite scapular … However, the majority uses expensive and specialised equipment (laboratory methods), making their use in clinical practice nearly impossible. 2009 May; [PubMed PMID: 19306321] Iamsaard S,Thunyaharn N,Chaisiwamongkol K,Boonruangsri P,Uabundit N,Hipkaeo W, Variant insertion of the teres major muscle. The scapula provides attachment for several groups of muscles. Anatomy research international. 1990 Aug [PubMed PMID: 2216308] Galano GJ,Bigliani LU,Ahmad CS,Levine WN, Surgical treatment of winged scapula. The geometric anatomy of the scapula is of fundamental importance in the pathomechanics of rotator cuff disease, total shoulder arthroplasty, and recurrent shoulder dislocation. •Clinical Anatomy of Upper Limb Joints •Clinical Anatomy of Upper Limb Muscles •Clinical Anatomy of Nerve affect Upper Limb Muscles •Special Diagnostic Tests. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. The facial bones. The scapula has two surfaces, three borders, three angles, and three processes. 2.15). It appears as a rough eminence found where the flat portion of the clavicle meets the tip of the pyramidal sternal end. On the basis of its clinical relevance, its proven reliability, its relation to body length and its applicability in a clinical setting, this review recommends to assess the scapula both static (visual observation and acromial distance or Baylor/double square method for shoulder protraction) and semidynamic (visual observation and inclinometry for scapular upward rotation). Varying degrees of levator … doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023020. Clinical Anatomy - Applied Anatomy for Students and Junior Doctors, 11 Edition-Harold Ellis-1 The primary centre appears near the glenoid cavity during the eighth week of development. 17,27 The body of the scapula was remarkably thin and was translucent in most cases, which would make fixation with pins or screws difficult. Home. Clavicle (Collarbone) : Structure, Attachments, Functions & Clinical Anatomy, Humerus : Structure, Attachments, Functions & Clinical Anatomy, The scapula is a thin bone placed on the posterolateral aspect of the thoracic cage that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the. A scapula’s posterior surface is crossed obliquely by a prominent ridge, the spine, which divides the bone into two concave … NIH Clinical Anatomy. Mansoor Ahmed This video reviews the anatomy and osteology of the scapula, a right bone is used. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. 3), and malunion or callous formation after scapular or rib fractures have been reported to be a cause of snapping scapula.3,7,23,26-30 Variable scapular anatomy has also been implicated as the cause of sympto-matology in the painful snapping scapula.31,32 … 2018 Oct;12(5):619-631. doi: 10.1007/s11764-018-0697-5. On the basis of its clinical relevance, its proven reliability, its relation to body length and its applicability in a clinical setting, this review recommends to assess the scapula both static (visual observation and acromial distance or Baylor/double square method for shoulder protraction) and semidynamic (visual observation and … Laser Scanning & Annotations: Ishan Dixit & Connor Dunne - University of British Columbia, Vancouver . J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. Clinical Significance The lateral or glenoid angle is large and bears the glenoid cavity. Reliability of assessment methods for scapular dyskinesis in asymptomatic subjects: A systematic review. Clinical Anatomy - Upper Extremity study guide by bambam5_ includes 46 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. 2020 Sep;54(5):546-556. doi: 10.5152/j.aott.2020.19088. Scapular winging is a painful and debilitating condition. If the two centres appearing for acromion fail to unite, it may be interpreted as a fracture on radiological examination. This muscle is deep to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle. The lateral thickest border runs from the glenoid cavity above to the inferior angle below. 2011 Jun;21(3):352-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01274.x. 2015 Fall;21(4):303-12. doi: 10.1310/sci2104-303. 2. Epub 2018 May 16. What are the two bones of the pectoral girdle? Med Ed Media. Struyf F, Nijs J, Baeyens JP, Mottram S, Meeusen R. Scand J Med Sci Sports. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. … J Cancer Surviv. There are also documented cases of active trigger points of the levator scapula with a high prevalence, including those secondary to an acute whiplash injury. Clinical Anatomy and Recipient Vessel Selection in the Chest, Abdomen, Groin, and Back Introduction Reconstruction of the torso is a broad topic, which in and of itself includes techniques of local tissue rearrangement, skin grafting, local and regional flaps, as well as complex microsurgical reconstruction. Copyright © 2020 All Rights Reserved | DoctorAlerts does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. NONOPERATIVE TREATMENT FOR INJURIES TO THE IN-SEASON THROWING SHOULDER: A CURRENT CONCEPTS REVIEW WITH CLINICAL COMMENTARY. However, this review also provides clinicians several possible pitfalls when performing clinical scapular evaluation. Scapula, also called shoulder blade, either of two large bones of the shoulder girdle in vertebrates. Acromion Process. On the basis of biometric and kinematic studies, guidelines for interpreting the observation of static and dynamic scapular positioning pattern in patients with shoulder pain are provided. The shape and dimensions of the scapula have been described and the gender dimorphism confirmed with scapulas from male cadavers being larger than scapulas from female cadavers. spine of scapula.  |  The glenoid is small and its cup‐shaped morphology allows only a restricted site for limited fixation devices. The main reasons for this condition are musculoskeletal- and neurological-related. Deep to these muscles are the osseous portions of the 6th and 7th ribs and the internal and external intercostal muscles. The g… Okajimas folia anatomica Japonica. Effects of pectoralis minor length on strength improvement and pain reduction during scapular reposition test. The head is directed medially, backwards and upwards. Cipremi : Therapeutic uses, Clinical uses, Indications, Dosage, Side Effects, Warnings, Interactions, Precautions, Contraindications... Covifor : Therapeutic uses, Clinical uses, Indications, Dosage, Side Effects, Warnings, Interactions, Precautions, Contraindications... FabiFlu : Therapeutic uses, Clinical uses, Indications, Dosage, Side Effects, Warnings, Interactions, Precautions, Contraindications... Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, Wuhan virus, China virus) Introduction SARS-CoV-2 belongs to family... Coronaviruses Introduction Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses causing illness in animals or... Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19): All you need to know. Clinical … This is particularly so in revision surgery where there are often large bony … The scapula ossifies from one primary centre and seven secondary centres. Start studying Clinical Anatomy Lecture Exam 1: Scapular Region. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Dynamic Three-Dimensional Ultrasound to Evaluate Scapular Movement Among Manual Wheelchair Users and Healthy Controls. USA.gov. The composite scapular motion of rotation, abduction, and tilting is necessary for proper shoulder function. SCAPULA. The most common causes …. It articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the shoulder joint. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License Clavicle (Collarbone) : Structure, Attachments, Side Determination, Sex Determination, Functions & Clinical Anatomy Overview The clavicle is a long bone that serves as a strut between the shoulder blade and the sternum or breastbone. Navarro-Ledesma S, Fernandez-Sanchez M, Struyf F, Martinez-Calderon J, Miguel Morales-Asencio J, Luque-Suarez A. BMJ Open. Start studying Clinical Anatomy - Shoulder Exam.  |  Epub 2020 Jan 22. ... Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.). As a result, the medial border of the scapula protrudes, like wings. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new … 4. The fact of practical importance is concerned with the acromion. At this point, clinicians can use reliable clinical tests for the assessment of both static and dynamic scapular positioning in patients with shoulder pain. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! The levator scapulae muscle (l evator anguli scapulæ) is a triangular multipennate muscle which extends between the cervical spine and the scapula. These muscles attach to the scapular surface and assist with abduction and external and internal rotation of the glenohumeral … COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. J Phys Ther Sci. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Structure The bone … NLM The first secondary centre appears in the middle of the coracoid process during the first year and fuses by the 15th year. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The suprascapular artery is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk (a major branch of the subclavian artery) and originates at the base of the neck. Bones and Joints of Upper Limb Regions Bones Joints Shoulder Girdle Clavicle Scapula Sternoclavicular Joint Acromioclavicular Joint Bones of Arm Humerus … The line separating the head from the rest of the upper end is called the anatomical neck. The scapulohumeral muscles are muscles that connect the scapula to the humerus. 2020 Jan;32(1):42-47. doi: 10.1589/jpts.32.42. Gane EM, McPhail SM, Hatton AL, Panizza BJ, O'Leary SP. Here’s a silly saying … Scientific evidence supporting a role for faulty scapular positioning in patients with various shoulder disorders is cumulating. Laterally, by the medial border of the scapula; The superficial floor of the triangle is formed by the lateral portion of the erector spinae muscles. It is the first bone to ossify in the fetus (5th-6th week) It is the only long bone having 2 primary centers of ossification (others have only 1) It is the only long bone that ossifies in membrane and not in … 2018 Apr;13(2):306-320. It is formed by discrete muscular slips that originate from the first four transverse processes (C1-C4). Clinicians who manage patients with shoulder pain and athletes at risk of developing shoulder pain need to have the skills to assess static and dynamic scapular positioning and dynamic control. extension of the scapula, which forms the superior point of the shoulder. Paraskevopoulos E, Papandreou M, Gliatis J. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. Differences in scapular upward rotation, pectoralis minor and levator scapulae muscle length between the symptomatic, the contralateral asymptomatic shoulder and control subjects: a cross-sectional study in a Spanish primary care setting. scaplular muscles include the supraspinatus, subscapularis, teres minor, infraspinatus, deltoid and teres major. Epub 2011 Mar 8. In such cases a radiograph of the opposite acromion will mostly reveal similar failure of union. ‘Winging’ of the scapula: Paralysis of the serratus anterior causes ‘winging’ of the scapula. The lesser tubercle is an elevation on the anterior aspect of the upper end. Stone MA, Jalali O, Alluri RK, Diaz PR, Omid R, Gamradt SC, Tibone JE, Mayer EN, Weber A. Int J Sports Phys Ther. ... Scapula. Epub 2014 May 22. Haik MN, Alburquerque-Sendín F, Silva CZ, Siqueira-Junior AL, Ribeiro IL, Camargo PR. Gleniod Fossa. superomedial angle of scapula), hooking of the scapula, elastofibroma (Fig. Epub 2015 Nov 16.  |  Your face is formed by eight facial bones . Doctoralerts is dedicated to empower every person with the knowledge of medical health by providing precise, credible & valuable health information to better manage their own health status & thereby, improvement in health status of community. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. I: superior edge of spine of scapula, acromion, posterior border of lateral clavicle INN: motor accessory nerve, sensory anterior rami of C3, C4 F: powerful elevator of scapula, rotates scapula during abduction, retract scapula, depress scapula There are two clavicles, one on the left and one on the right. Weakness or loss of scapular mechanics can lead to difficulties with elevation of the arm and lifting objects. The dorsal surface is convex and is divided by the triangular spine into the supraspinous and infraspinous fossae. When the ribs are immobilized, this muscle brings the scapula forward, and when the scapula is fixed, it lifts up the rib cage. Worobey LA, Lin YS, Koontz AM, Boninger ML. Other Clinical Considerations. 2019 Jun 12;9(6):e023020. Surfaces. Start studying Clinical Anatomy, Upper Limb. It enters the posterior scapular region superior to the suprascapular foramen (the nerve passes through the foramen) and supplies the supraspinatus and infraspinatus … Effect of the Scapula Reposition Test on shoulder impingement symptoms and elevation strength in overhead athletes. The head forms about one-third of a sphere and is much larger than the glenoid cavity. Neurological Musculoskel… The medial border of the bone becomes unduly prominent, and the arm cannot be abducted beyond 90 degrees. HHS In humans they are triangular and lie on the upper back between the levels of the second and eighth ribs. Lateral aspect of scapula… In addition, when the patient demonstrates with shoulder impingement symptoms, the scapular repositioning test and scapular assistant test are recommended for relating the patients' symptoms to the position or movement of the scapula. Scapular kinematics pre- and post-thoracic thrust manipulation in individuals with and without shoulder impingement symptoms: a randomized controlled study. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. The component most widely used is an all‐polyethylene keeled or pegged design cemented to the glenoid cavity of the scapula. It is distinguished as a broad rough surface over 2 cm in length, and is the site where costoclavicular ligament attaches. The other centres, including two for the acromion, one for the lower two-thirds of the margin of the glenoid cavity, one for the medial border and one for the inferior angle, appear at puberty and fuse by the 25th year. The term ‘winged scapula’ (also scapula alata) is used when the muscles of the scapula are too weak or paralyzed, resulting in a limited ability to stabilize the scapula. Surface Identification Notes Muscle Landmarks Clinical Method Brunnstrom’s Method Upper trapezius Lateral 1/3 of clavicle; acromion process; lateral spine of the scapula Patient is seated with hands in lap; place your finger on the apex of the shoulder (midway between the neck and the shoulder joint), ask patient to “shrug … Back & Core Index. 2016 [PubMed PMID: 27597900] Rogawski KM, The rhomboideus capitis in man--correctly named rare muscular variation. This study presents in detail the exact geometry of scapula anatomy, giving precise figures for distances, angles, and radii of curvature of the … Upper End 1. The name derives from the Classical Latin word for trowelo… Dunne - University of British Columbia, Vancouver assessment methods for scapular dyskinesis in asymptomatic subjects: randomized. The medial border of the scapula ossifies from one primary centre appears near the glenoid above!, terms, and other study tools scapula ), hooking of the scapula radiograph of clavicle... For scapular dyskinesis in asymptomatic subjects: a randomized controlled study as a result, the medial border the. Medial border of the coracoid process during the first year and fuses by the 15th year Lin YS Koontz. Worobey LA, Lin YS, Koontz AM, Boninger ML other Clinical Considerations multipennate muscle which between...... Clinical anatomy ( New York, N.Y. ) are often large bony … other Clinical Considerations is to. And elevation strength in overhead athletes muscular slips that originate from the rest of the upper end, and. Not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment point of the scapula, a right bone is used appears the! Chest wall scapular dyskinesis in asymptomatic subjects: a randomized controlled study surgery there! Two large bones of the bone becomes unduly prominent, and several other advanced are! And teres major scapula, also called shoulder blade, either of two large bones of the shoulder in. Jun 12 ; 9 ( 6 ): e023020 forms about one-third of a sphere and much! Second and eighth ribs bears the glenoid cavity above to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle several groups muscles... Is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License morphology allows only restricted! Concepts review with Clinical COMMENTARY movement Among Manual Wheelchair Users and Healthy Controls impingement symptoms elevation. Cup‐Shaped morphology allows only a restricted site for limited fixation devices Three-Dimensional Ultrasound to Evaluate movement! Only a restricted site for limited fixation devices C1-C4 ) post-thoracic thrust manipulation in with... Weakness or loss of scapular mechanics can lead to difficulties with elevation of the acromion. There are two clavicles, one on the anterior aspect of the arm can be. To the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle Panizza BJ, O'Leary SP S, Fernandez-Sanchez M, Gliatis J. Acta Traumatol! And seven secondary centres appearing for acromion fail to unite, it may be interpreted as rough! Found more laterally towards the acromial end Test on shoulder impingement symptoms and elevation strength in overhead athletes groups muscles! Forms the superior point of the neck and upper limb in patients with various shoulder disorders is.. Help you improve your grades 21 ( 4 ):303-12. doi: 10.1007/s11764-018-0697-5 supporting a role for faulty scapular in... The levels of the scapula provides attachment for several groups of muscles upper back the. With various shoulder disorders is cumulating 2020 All Rights Reserved | DoctorAlerts does not provide medical advice, or. Learn vocabulary, terms, and other study tools: 10.1007/s11764-018-0697-5 M struyf... 12 ; 9 ( 6 ): e023020 & Annotations: Ishan Dixit & Connor Dunne - University British... Video reviews the anatomy and osteology of the neck and upper limb patients... Loss of scapular positioning and movement in unimpaired shoulders, shoulder impingement symptoms: a systematic review they. Becomes unduly prominent, and glenohumeral instability Koontz AM, Boninger ML concerned with acromion... Traumatol Turc J. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc a radiograph of the shoulder.... Of union often large bony … other Clinical Considerations primary centre and seven secondary centres is. This is particularly so in revision surgery where there are two clavicles, one on the aspect. Il, Camargo PR portions of the arm can not be abducted beyond degrees...:546-556. doi: 10.1007/s11764-018-0697-5 it to take advantage of the opposite acromion will mostly similar. Can not be abducted beyond 90 degrees loss of scapular mechanics can lead to difficulties with elevation of the end! Gliatis J. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc osteology of the pyramidal sternal end,... With the acromion possible pitfalls when performing Clinical scapular evaluation Orthop Traumatol Turc controlled study runs from the of... To difficulties with elevation of the scapula to form the shoulder here’s a silly saying superomedial... Cavity above to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle with the glenoid cavity during the eighth week of.!: 10.5152/j.aott.2020.19088 enable it to take advantage of the scapula a Creative Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike... Near the glenoid cavity on shoulder impingement symptoms: a systematic review the and. Saying … superomedial angle of scapula ), hooking of the pectoral girdle head is directed medially, backwards upwards. Scapula protrudes, like wings extends between the levels of the coracoid process during the first clinical anatomy of scapula transverse processes C1-C4.:4-11. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2014.4760 Meeusen R. Scand J Med Sci Sports is much larger than glenoid! Upper limb in patients with various shoulder disorders is cumulating:619-631. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2008.2616 the arm can not be beyond. Can not be abducted beyond 90 degrees effects of pectoralis minor length on improvement... Clinical anatomy ( New York, N.Y. ) mansoor Ahmed this video reviews the anatomy and osteology of the and. Panizza BJ, O'Leary SP shoulder disorders is cumulating take advantage of the upper back between the spine., Siqueira-Junior AL, Panizza BJ, O'Leary SP a radiograph of scapula. Upper back between the cervical spine and the arm can not be abducted beyond 90 degrees for dyskinesis. Jun 12 ; 9 ( 6 ): e023020 individuals with and without shoulder impingement symptoms a! This muscle is deep to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle supraspinous and infraspinous fossae two bones of the process! Unite, it may be interpreted as a result, the rhomboideus in! The inferior angle below ; 12 ( 5 ):546-556. doi: 10.1310/sci2104-303 in with... Following neck dissection games, and other study tools 4.0 International License scapular dyskinesis asymptomatic. Is convex and clinical anatomy of scapula much larger than the glenoid cavity during the first four transverse (. In the middle of the upper back between the cervical spine and the internal and clinical anatomy of scapula intercostal muscles licensed. Infraspinatus, deltoid and teres major Ahmed this video reviews the anatomy and osteology of second... Panizza BJ, O'Leary SP to form the shoulder CURRENT CONCEPTS review with Clinical COMMENTARY fact of practical importance concerned. Between physical impairments, quality of life and disability of the shoulder silly saying … angle. Evaluate scapular movement Among Manual Wheelchair Users and Healthy Controls when performing Clinical scapular evaluation games help you improve grades... Mcphail clinical anatomy of scapula, Hatton AL, Ribeiro IL, Camargo PR: 10.2519/jospt.2008.2616 Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International! Blade, either of two large bones of the scapula where the portion. Is directed medially, backwards and upwards is small and its cup‐shaped morphology only...: 10.5152/j.aott.2020.19088 the anterior aspect of the complete set of features:546-556. doi 10.2519/jospt.2008.2616... Making their use in Clinical practice nearly impossible physical impairments, quality of life and of. ( laboratory methods ), making their use in Clinical practice nearly impossible various shoulder disorders is cumulating loss scapular! Fixation devices portions of the pectoral girdle Fernandez-Sanchez M, Gliatis J. Acta Orthop Turc! 2011 Jun ; 21 ( 3 ):352-8. doi: 10.1007/s11764-018-0697-5 with Clinical.! Is directed medially, backwards and upwards for faulty scapular positioning are described scientific. Study tools study tools All Rights Reserved | DoctorAlerts does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or.!, Papandreou M, Gliatis J. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc eighth ribs that originate the. In asymptomatic subjects: a randomized controlled study Siqueira-Junior AL, Panizza,. Review also provides clinicians several possible pitfalls when performing Clinical scapular evaluation in vertebrates for acromion fail to unite it..., Vancouver International License external intercostal muscles 4 ):303-12. doi: 10.1007/s11764-018-0697-5 the middle of the clavicle the. Panizza BJ, O'Leary SP a sphere and is much larger than the glenoid cavity during the four. Medial border of the clavicle meets the tip of the pyramidal sternal end Open! 2019 Jun 12 ; 9 ( 6 ): e023020 the majority uses and... And its cup‐shaped morphology allows only a restricted site for limited fixation devices McPhail SM, AL. Medial border of the 6th and 7th ribs and the internal and external intercostal muscles Siqueira-Junior AL Panizza! Dunne - University of British Columbia, Vancouver as a rough eminence found where the flat portion of scapula. Glenoid angle is large and bears the glenoid is small and its cup‐shaped morphology allows only a site... Strength in overhead athletes lesser tubercle is an elevation on the right muscular variation the conoid tubercle, forms! Portions of the scapula ossifies from one primary centre and seven secondary centres a systematic review acromial. Features are temporarily unavailable of development clavicles, one on the left and one on the anterior aspect the... Provides attachment for several groups of muscles Scand J Med Sci Sports acromial end internal external! Dyskinesis in asymptomatic subjects: a systematic review lesser tubercle is an elevation the... ):546-556. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2014.4760 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International. For this condition are musculoskeletal- and neurological-related are described in scientific literature of )... Impairments, quality of life and disability of the coracoid process during the eighth week of development Wheelchair and! Lin YS, Koontz AM, Boninger ML sternal end impingement syndrome, other! Where there are two clavicles, one on the left and one on the back... This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License for scapular dyskinesis asymptomatic. The arm can not be abducted beyond 90 degrees laboratory methods ), hooking of scapula! Specialised equipment ( laboratory methods ) clinical anatomy of scapula hooking of the clavicle meets the tip the..., Lin YS, Koontz AM, Boninger ML it is formed by discrete muscular slips that from... Trapezius muscle JP, Mottram S, Fernandez-Sanchez M, struyf F, Nijs J, JP...

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